One of the most critical vulnerabilities a Web application can have is an insecure direct object reference. Such vulnerability normaly exists due to an (usually database) object id that an user can directly access and manipulate (and!) that is not authorized correctly.
An example that we often see is something like this:
or within a path parameter:
If such an direct object id is not correctly authorized by the application, an attacker can very easily identify it by incrementing / decrementing the id that is provided to him. Tools such as Burp Proxy offer a functionality to do this basically automatically. The result would be, that confidential data can be accessed and stolen.
Besides performing programmatic authorization checks (within the code), there are a couple of very effective countermeasures to prevent this type of vulnerability by design:
- Perform identify propagation and check permissions on backend system
- Implement an indirection layer that maps (database) object ids to user specific ids.
Well, bot are very good primary measures, that are, unfortunately, not very easy to implement. Which is why so many applications gets compromised by such a vulnerability.
One very nice additional measure to not fix such vulnerability but makes its identification much harder for an attacker is to not use incremented object ids but to use a scheme that is harder to guess by an atacker. One way to do this is using Universally Unique Identified (UUIDs), that is based on hashing. Instead of an “123” the object would be addressed by something like “a07e9037-e80f-49e6-802c-fc20cc6afbe8”.
The implementation of UUIDs requires persistance technology (ORM) to support it though. Hibernate offers a special generator that must be activated with the following annotation:
import javax.persistence.*; import org.hibernate.annotations.GenericGenerator; ... @GeneratedValue(generator = "uuid2") @GenericGenerator(name = "uuid2", strategy = "uuid2") @Column(name = "id", columnDefinition = "BINARY(16)") @Id private UUID id;
Thats basically all you need. The only thing that must be changed in addition is the data type of the id column in the database (instead of int just use a binary data type with a length of 16 bytes). After this, newly created obects are automatically enumerated with UUIDs and instead of the urls shown above, users would acces objects in the following way:
If this object identfier leaks proper authorization an attacker can of course stil access it. Identification is now much harder though since an attacker cannot find them by incrementing ids anymore.